Tuesday, September 15, 2009

Major events in Nepal: Reverse-chronological order

2009 September - ?

2009 May - Prime Minister Prachanda resigns in protest against "unconstitutional and undemocratic" move by President Yadav to block the sacking of the army chief. UML leader Madhav Kumar Nepal named new prime minister.

2008 May - Nepal becomes a republic.

2008 June - Maoist ministers resign from the cabinet in a row over who should be the next head of state.

2008 July - Two months after the departure of King Gyanendra, Ram Baran Yadav becomes Nepal's first president.

2008 January - A series of bomb blasts kill and injure dozens in the southern Terai plains. Various political and criminal groups demand regional autonomy through One Madesh-One Pradesh slogan.

2008 August - Maoist leader Prachanda forms coalition government, with Nepali Congress going into opposition.

2008 April - Former Maoist rebels win the largest bloc of seats in elections to the new constituent assembly. Nepali Congress and United Marxist-Leninist come second and third in the election.

2007 May - Elections for a constituent assembly pushed back to November.

2007 January - Maoist leaders enter parliament under the terms of a temporary constitution. Violent ethnic protests erupt in the south-east; demonstrators demand autonomy for the region.

2007 December - Parliament approves abolition of monarchy as part of peace deal with Maoists, who agree to re-join government.

2007 April - Former Maoist rebels join interim government, a move that takes them into the political mainstream.

2006 November - The government and Maoists sign a peace accord, declaring a formal end to a 10-year rebel insurgency. The rebels are to join a transitional government and their weapons will be placed under UN supervision.

2006 May - Parliament votes unanimously to curtail the king's political powers. The government and Maoist rebels begin peace talks, the first in nearly three years.

2006 April - King Gyanendra agrees to reinstate parliament following weeks of violent strikes and protests against direct royal rule. GP Koirala is appointed as prime minister. Maoist rebels call a three-month ceasefire.

2006 16 June - Rebel leader Prachanda and PM Koirala hold talks - the first such meeting between the two sides - and agree that the Maoists should be brought into an interim government.

2005 November - Maoist rebels and main opposition parties agree on a programme intended to restore democracy.

2005 30 April - King lifts the state of emergency amid international pressure.

2005 1 February - King Gyanendra dismisses Prime Minister Deuba and his government, declares a state of emergency and assumes direct power, citing the need to defeat Maoist rebels.

2004 May - Royalist Prime Minister Surya Bahadur Thapa resigns following weeks of street protests by opposition groups.

2004 June - King Gyanendra reappoints Sher Bahadur Deuba as prime minister with the task of holding elections.

2004 April - Nepal joins the World Trade Organisation (WTO).

2003 May-June - Lokendra Bahadur Chand resigns as PM; king appoints his own nominee Surya Bahadur Thapa as new premier.

2003 January - Rebels, government declare ceasefire.

2003 August - Rebels pull out of peace talks with government and end seven-month truce. The following months see resurgence of violence and frequent clashes between students/activists and police.

2002 October - King Gyanendra dismisses Deuba and indefinitely puts off elections set for November. Lokendra Bahadur Chand appointed as PM.

2002 May - Parliament dissolved, fresh elections called amid political confrontation over extending the state of emergency. Sher Bahadur Deuba heads interim government, renews emergency.

2001 November - State of emergency declared after more than 100 people are killed in four days of violence. King Gyanendra orders army to crush the Maoist rebels. Many hundreds are killed in rebel and government operations in the following months.

2001 November - Maoists end four-month old truce with government, declare peace talks with government failed. Launch coordinated attacks on army and police posts.

2001 July - Maoist rebels step up campaign of violence. Prime Minister GP Koirala quits over the violence; succeeded by Sher Bahadur Deuba.

2001 4 June - Prince Gyanendra crowned King of Nepal after Dipendra dies of his injuries.

2001 1 June - King Birendra, Queen Aishwarya and other close relatives killed in shooting spree by drunken Crown Prince Dipendra, who then shoots himself.

2000 - GP Koirala returns as prime minister, heading the ninth government in 10 years.

1997 - Prime Minister Sher Bahadur Deuba loses no-confidence vote, ushering in period of increased political instability, with frequent changes of prime minister.

1995 - Radical leftist group, the Nepal Communist Party (Maoist), begins insurrection in rural areas aimed at abolishing monarch and establishing people's republic, sparking a conflict that would drag on for over a decade.

1995 - Communist government dissolved.

1994 - Koirala's government defeated in no-confidence motion. New elections lead to formation of Communist government.

1991 - Nepali Congress Party wins first democratic elections. Girija Prasad Koirala becomes prime minister.

1990 - Pro-democracy agitation co-ordinated by NCP and leftist groups. Street protests suppressed by security forces resulting in deaths and mass arrests. King Birendra eventually bows to pressure and agrees to new democratic constitution.

1989 - Trade and transit dispute with India leads to border blockade by Delhi resulting in worsening economic situation.

1986 - New elections boycotted by NCP.

1985 - NCP begins civil disobedience campaign for restoration of multi-party system.

1980 - Constitutional referendum follows agitation for reform. Small majority favours keeping existing panchayat system. King agrees to allow direct elections to national assembly - but on a non-party basis.

1972 - King Mahendra dies, succeeded by Birendra.

1962 - New constitution provides for non-party system of councils known as "panchayat" under which king exercises sole power. First elections to Rastrya Panchayat held in 1963.

1960 - King Mahendra seizes control and suspends parliament, constitution and party politics after Nepali Congress Party (NCP) wins elections with B. P. Koirala as premier.

1959 - Multi-party constitution adopted.

1955 - Nepal joins the United Nations.

1955 - King Tribhuwan dies, King Mahendra ascends throne.

1953 - Edmund Hillary and Tenzing Norgay Sherpa set foot on Mount Everest.

1951 - End of Rana oligarchy.

1846 - Ranas overtake the Shahs.

1814-16 - British-Nepal war; 1815 - Treaty of Sugauli.

1768 - Prithvi Narayan Shah lays foundation of modern Nepal.


BBC News, CIA-The World Factbook, Encyclopaedia Britannica, The Library of Congress

Additional information adapted from current events.